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David Throsby

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David Throsby
  • Title: Distinguished Professor
  • Position: Professor of Economics - Department of Economics
  • Qualifications: Bachelor of Science (Agriculture), University of Sydney; Master of Science (Agriculture), University of Sydney; Doctor of Philosophy, London School of Economics; Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia

Contact Details

Areas of Expertise

  • the role of culture in economic development,
  • the economic situation of individual artists,
  • the economics of the performing arts,
  • the creative industries,
  • the economics of heritage, and 
  • the relationship between cultural and economic policy

Profile

Professor David Throsby is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Economics at Macquarie University. He is internationally known for his work as an economist with specialist interests in the economics of the arts and culture. He holds Bachelor and Master degrees from the University of Sydney and a PhD in Economics from the London School of Economics. Professor Throsby's research interests include the role of culture in economic development, the economic situation of individual artists, the economics of the performing arts, the creative industries, the economics of heritage and the relationship between cultural and economic policy. He has published several books and a large number of reports and journal articles in these areas, as well as in the economics of education and the economics of the environment. His book Economics and Culture, published by Cambridge University Press in 2001, has been translated into eight languages.

Recent research-related publications include Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture Vol. 2 (Elsevier/North Holland, 2014) co-edited with Victor Ginsburgh. He also co-edited, with Michael Hutter,  Beyond Price: Value in Culture, Economics and the Arts (Cambridge University Press, 2008). Professor Throsby's latest book, The Economics of Cultural Policy, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2010.

David Throsby has been a Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia since 1987, and was elected a Distinguished Fellow of the Association for Cultural Economics International in 2008. During a career spanning employment in both government and academia, he has been chair or member of a number of boards and committees at both national and international levels. He has also been a consultant to a number of international organisations including FAO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, OECD, and the World Bank. He is a member of several Editorial Boards, including the Journal of Cultural Economics, the International Journal of Cultural Policy, Poetics, the  Asia Pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management and the Journal of Cultural Property.

In addition to his academic work, he has also written several plays, one of which was produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London in 1975. He is married with two daughters and lives in Sydney.

Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy: (London School of Economics)
  • Master of Science: Agriculture (University of Sydney)
  • Bachelor of Science: Agriculture (University of Sydney)

Research grants

Research Grants/Projects since 2000
  • ARC Discovery Project, 2013, Project on the book industry and the impact of e-books on authors, publishers, readers.
  • ARC, Discovery Grant, 2012-15, for a project on the Indigenous art economy in two regions of Northern Australia, with Howard Morphy (ANU).
  • Commonwealth Environmental Research Facility, Environmental Economics Hub, 2009-12 for a project on methodology for assessing the value of cultural heritage.
  • Australia Council for the Arts, 2009-10, for updated economic study on Australian practising professional artists.
  • NESTA (National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts, UK) 2009-10, for research on the role of new technologies in cultural institutions, with Hasan Bakhshi.
  • Rockefeller Foundation, New York 2004-06, for project on Value and Valuation in Arts and Culture (Team Residency at Bellagio Study and Conference Centre, Italy).
  • Columbia University, New York 2003-05, for research project on Career Transition of Professional Dancers, with William Baumol and Joan Jeffri.
  • Australia Council 2001-03, for economic study on Australian practising professional artists.

Affiliations / activities

Committee/Board Membership

Professor Throsby has held numerous positions on Boards and Committees, including President of the NSW Branches of the Australian Agricultural Economics Society and the Economic Society of Australia, President of the Association for Cultural Economics International, and Foundation Chair of the National Association for the Visual Arts. He has served on the Boards of the Australian Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Copyright Agency Limited and VISCOPY.  Professor Throsby chaired three of the Working Groups in the Prime Minister's Ecologically Sustainable Development Process in 1991-93. He was a member of the Scientific Committees for both the first and the second World Culture Reports for UNESCO in 1998-2000.

Committee/Board memberships since 2000
  • Member, Culture Network, Australian National Commission for UNESCO (2000 - 2005);
  • Member, Experts' Committee on the Cultural Diversity Convention, UNESCO, Paris  (2003-2004); 
  • Chair, New South Wales Arts Advisory Council (2003-2008);
  • Member, International Advisory Board, Cultures and Globalisation Series, Sage (2007 to 2010);
  • Member, Creative Australia stream, 2020 Ideas Summit (2008);
  • Member, Federal Ministerial Advisory Committee for Creative Australia (2008 to 2010);
  • Member, Federal Ministerial Advisory Committee on Heritage (2008 to 2011);
  • Scientific Advisor to UNESCO Experts Group on Cultural Policy (2009);
  • Member, Scientific Committee, 16th International Conference of the Association for Cultural Economics International, Copenhagen, (2009 to 2010)
  • Member, High-level Group on Culture and Development, Commonwealth Foundation, London (2009 - 2011);
  • Member, ICOMOS (International Council on Museums and Sites) Economics of Heritage Committee, (2007 to date)
  • Member, Ministerial Reference Group for National Cultural Policy (2011 - 2013)
  • Member, Advisory Board, Forum d'Avignon, Paris (2010 to date).
  • Member, Advisory Board, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Economies Project, Cooperative Research Centre for Remote Economic Participation, Curtin University (2012 to date).
  • Chair, Book Industry Collaborative Council, (2012-2013).

phd supervision toggle icon open PhD Student Supervision

  • Principal Supervisor of Anita Zednik, "Taste and Consumers' Demand for Music", PhD-Economics Research - Full Time
  • Principal Supervisor of Yousun Shin, "Is Cultural Diversity Taking Place in International Trade in Arts?", PhD-Economics Research - Full Time
  • Principal Supervisor of Nicholas van der Kooi - Phd Economics Research 

Recent completions

  • 2013, Onur Ates, "Cultural Capital: At the Crossroads of Economics and Culture"
  • 2012, Janiece Faye Zwar, "Cultural value and books in public debate in Australia 2003-2008".
  • 2007, Stephen Boyle, "Ownership, Efficiency and Identity: the Transition and Development of Australia's Symphony Orchestras from Government Departments to Corporate Entities"
  • 2007, Vinita Deodhar, "Economic Valuation of Heritage Policy Programs"
  • 2004, Niramon Sutummakid, "Economic Growth, Soil Pollution and Soil Quality in Central Thailand"
  • 2004, Zulfiqar Bashir, "The Effects of Economic Reform on Agriculture and Agricultural Trade in India and Pakistan"

Publications since 2005

2014

Ginsburgh, Victor A. and David Throsby (2014) (eds.) Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture Vol. 2, Oxford: North-Holland.

Ginsburgh, Victor A. and David Throsby (2014) 'Introduction and overview', in Victor A Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture Vol. 2, Oxford: North-Holland, pp. 1-12.

Throsby, David and Anita Zednik (2014) 'The economic and cultural value of paintings: Some empirical evidence', in Victor A Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture Vol. 2, Oxford: North-Holland, pp. 81-99.

Throsby, David (2014), 'The role of culture in sustainable urban development: Some economic issues', International Journal of Sustainable Development. 17(1), (forthcoming).

Throsby, David (2014), 'Creative and cultural industries and their economic potential' in Proceedings of an International Conference on the Notion of Culture as a Force for Economic Growth: New Approach for South Caucasus, Tbilisi, September, 2013 (forthcoming).

2013

Throsby, David (2013) 'Assessment of value in heritage regulation', in Ilde Rizzo and Anna Mignosa (eds.), Handbook on the Economics of Cultural Heritage, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 456-469.

Throsby, David (2013), 'Experience goods, the market for ideas and the formation of cultural value', in Dirk Baecker and Birger P Priddat (eds.), Ökonomie der Werte, Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Michael Hutter, Marburg: Metropolis-Verlag, pp. 17-28.

Bakhshi, Hasan and David Throsby (2014) 'Digital complements or substitutes? A quasi-field experiment from the Royal National Theatre' Journal of Cultural Economics, DOI 10.1007/s10824-013-9201-2

Throsby, David (2013), 'The economics of heritage conservation: a discussion', in Sarah Staniforth (ed.), Historical Perspectives on Preventive Conservation', Los Angeles: the Getty Conservation Institute, pp. 349-350.

David Throsby (2013), 'Peanuts' (Review of book on income inequality), Times Literary Supplement,  December 6.

2012

Boyle, Stephen and David Throsby, (2012) 'Corporatisation, economic efficiency and the Australian symphony orchestras', Economic Papers. 31(1) : 36-49 (Winner of Best Paper Prize 2012 for Economic Papers).

Bakhshi, Hasan and David Throsby, (2012) 'New technologies in cultural institutions : Theory, evidence and policy implications ', International Journal of Cultural Policy 18(2) : 205-222.

Baumol, William and David Throsby (2012), 'Psychic payoffs, overpriced assets and underpaid superstars', Kyklos, 65(3) : 313-326.

Throsby, David and Anita Zednik (2012), 'Minimum income requirements of creative artists: Some empirical results,' in Vera Borges and Pedro Costa (eds.), Criatividade e Instituições: Novos Desafios à Vida dos Artistas e dos Profissionais da Cultura, (Creativity and Institutions: New Challenges to the Life of Artists and Cultural Professionals), Lisbon: Imprensa de Ciêcias Sociais (Social Sciences Press), pp. 37-48.

Throsby, David (2012), 'Why should economists be interested in cultural policy?' Economic Record, 88(Special Issue, June): 106-109.

Throsby, David (2012), 'Artistic labour markets: Why are they of interest to labour economists?' Economia della Cultura, 22(1): 7-16.

Throsby, David (2012),  'Article 13: Integration of culture in sustainable development',  in Sabine von Schorlemer and Peter-Tobias Stoll, eds., The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: Explanatory Notes, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 361-370.

Throsby, David (2012), 'Sustainable development and the Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions', in Toshiyuki Kono and Steven Van Uytsel (eds.), The UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions: A Tale of Fragmentation in International Law,  Cambridge: Intersentia, pp. 353-361.

Throsby, David (2012), Investment in Urban Heritage: Economic Impacts of Cultural Heritage Projects in FYR Macedonia and Georgia, Washington, DC: Urban Development Series, The World Bank, pp. x, 49.

Throsby, David (2012), 'Heritage economics: a conceptual framework', in Guido Licciardi and Rana Amirtahmasebi (eds.), The Economics of Uniqueness: Investing in Historic City Cores and Cultural Heritage Assets for Sustainable Development, Washinington DC: The World Bank, pp. 45-74.

Throsby, David (2012), 'Fashion weeks' (Review of three books on creative industries and culture in economics), Times Literary Supplement, No. 5720, November 16, p. 33.

Throsby, David (2012), Ekonomika Kulturne Politike, (Serbian translation of The Economics of Cultural Policy), Belgrade: Clio Publishing, pp. 252.

Throsby, David (2012), 'Cultura, economía y desarrollo sustenable', in Magdalena Aninat Sahli (ed.), Cultura y Economía, (in Spanish), Santiago: Publicaciones Cultura, pp. 55-61.Throsby, David, (2012), 'Introduction' in Forum d'Avignon,Investing in Culture: Acts of the Forum d'Avignon, Culture, Economy, Media, November 17-19, 2011), Paris:  Éditions Gallimard, pp. 15-17 (in French), 315-317 (in English).

2011

Throsby, David (2011), 'The Political Economy of Art:  Ruskin and contemporary cultural economics', History of Political Economy, 43(2): 275-294.

Throsby, David and Anita Zednik (2011), 'Multiple job-holding and artistic careers: some empirical evidence', Cultural Trends, 20(1): 9-24.

Huang, Sterling and David Throsby (2011), 'Economic, political and social determinants of peace', Economics of Peace and Security Journal  6(2): 5-14.

Bakhshi, Hasan and David Throsby (2011), 'New technologies in cultural institutions : Theory, evidence and policy implications ',International Journal of Cultural Policy. DOI:10.1080/10286632.2011.587878

Throsby, David (2011), 'Cultural capital' in Ruth Towse ed. Handbook of Cultural Economics, 2nd edn. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 142-146.

Throsby, David (2011), 'Cultural statistics' in Ruth Towse ed. Handbook of Cultural Economics, 2nd edn. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp.158-165.

Throsby, David (2011), ), 'Cultura, economìa y desarrollo sustentable' (Culture, the economy and sustainable development). In Consejo Nacional de la Cultura y las Artes, Cultura: Opportunidad de Desarrollo, Santiago: Publicaciones Cultura, pp. 10-19 (in Spanish).

Throsby, David (2011), 'Fazer arte, fazer dinheiro: o que nos podem dizer os economistas sobre o teatro? (Making art, making money: What can economics tell us about the theatre?) in Francesca Rayner et al. (eds.), Teatro e economia: desafios em tempo de crise. Lisboa : Teatro Nacional D. Maria II : Bicho do Mato (in Portuguese).

Throsby, David (2011), 'The contribution of culture to Europe 2020 : Some key issues', in The Contribution of Culture to the Implementation of the Europe 2020 Strategy, Budapest : Kulturpont Iroda, pp. 15-17.

Throsby, David (2011), 'Assemblage of idiots'. Review of Johns, Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates. In Australian Book Review  No. 328, February, pp. 19-20.

Throsby, David (2011), 'The interpersonal market', Review of Zelizer, Economic Lives: How Culture Shapes the Economy.  In Times Literary Supplement, No. 5667, 11 November, p. 28.

Throsby, David (2011), 'How are the arts to be valued?' NAVA Quarterly, 11(4): 6.

Throsby, David (2011), Review of Galenson, Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth Century Art.  In Journal of Economic History, 71(1): 258-259.

2010

*Throsby, David (2010), The Economics of Cultural Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 978-0-521-86825-9 (hb), 978-0-521-68784-3 (pb), 277 pp.

Throsby, David (2010), Ekonomia i Kultura (Polish edition of Economics and Culture), Warsaw: Narodowe Centrum Kultury. ISBN 978-83-61587-36-1, 182 pp.

*Throsby David, (2010) 'Economic analysis of artists' behaviour: some current issues', Revue d'Economie Politique, 120(1): 47-56.

*Throsby, David, (2010), 'Review essay: Richard A. Etlin, In Defense of Humanism: Value in the Arts and Letters (Cambridge, 1996)', International Journal of Cultural Policy, 16(1):84-85.

Throsby, David (2010), 'Long running', Review of Clarke, Keynes: the Twentieth Century's Most Influential Economist, and Pecchi and Piga, Revisiting Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, in Times Literary Supplement, No. 5580, March 12, p. 28.

Bakhshi, Hasan, Juan Mateos-Garcia and David Throsby (2010), Beyond Live : Digital Innovation in the Performing Arts. London : National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), 11 pp.

Bakhshi, Hasan and David Throsby (2010), Culture of Innovation: An Economic Analysis of Innovation in Arts and Cultural Organisations. London : National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), 89 pp.

Throsby, David and Anita Zednik (2010), Do You Really Expect to Get Paid ? An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia. Sydney : Australia Council. ISBN : 978-1-920784-56-0, 144 pp.

Throsby, David (2010), 'Economic analysis of architectural heritage : What can economics tell us ?' in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Architecture Heritage Preservation and Sustainable Development, Tianjin : Tianjin University Press, pp. 3-4.

2009

*Throsby, David (2009) 'Explicit and implicit cultural policy: some economic aspects', International Journal of Cultural Policy, 15(2): 179-185.

*Throsby, David (2009) 'Tourism, heritage and cultural sustainability: three golden rules', in Luigi Fusco Girard and Peter Nijkamp, eds. Cultural Tourism and Sustainable Local Development, London: Ashgate, pp. 13-30.

Throsby, David (2009), The Evolution of Cultural Policy : Towards a New Cultural Policy Profile, (Research paper prepared for Culture Division, UNESCO, Paris, March 2009), 18 pp.

Throsby, David (2009), Towards a New Cultural Policy Profile : Global Synthesis, (Background paper prepared for Expert Meeting on the New Cultural Policy Framework, UNESCO, Paris, 6-8 July, 2009), 28 pp.

Throsby, David (2009), 'Cultural networking in the twenty-first century : Some priority areas for research and information exchange', in Proceedings of an International Conference on Cultural Development and Information Networking, Seoul, Korea, 4 November 2009, pp. 5-10.

Throsby, David (2009), 'Distinctive voices of local identity affirmed by global treaty' The Australian, 1 October, p. 15.

Throsby, David (2009), 'Arts, culture and creative ecologies : the economists' perspective', Proceedings of the Forum for Creative Europe, Prague, 2009.Prague : Czech Ministry of Culture, pp. 28-30.

2008

Hutter, Michael and David Throsby (eds) (2008), Beyond Price: Value in Culture, Economics, and the Arts. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Throsby, David (2008), 'The concentric circles model of the cultural industries', Cultural Trends, 17(3):147–164.

Throsby, David (2008), 'Linking cultural and ecological sustainability', The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, 8(1): 15–20.

Throsby, David (2008), 'Modelling the cultural industries', International Journal of Cultural Policy, 14(3): 217–232.

Throsby, David (2008), 'A new "moment" for cultural policy', in Lisa Andersen and Kate Oakley (eds.), Making Money, Making Meaning: Directions for the Arts and Cultural Industries in the Creative Age, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Throsby, David (2008), 'Globalization and the cultural economy: a crisis of value?', in Helmut Anheier and Yudhishthir Raj Isar (eds.), The Cultural Economy. Cultures and Globalization Series Vol. II., London: Sage,  pp. 29–41,

Throsby, David (2008) 'Arts, economics of ', in New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics London: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Hutter, Michael and David Throsby (2008) 'Value and valuation in art and culture: introduction and overview', in Michael Hutter and David Throsby (eds.), Beyond Price: Value in Culture Economics, and the Arts, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–19,

Throsby, David (2008), 'The creation of value by artists: The case of Hector Berlioz and the Symphonie Fantastique', in Hutter and Throsby, eds., op. cit., 75–88.

Throsby, David (2008), Creative Australia: The Arts and Culture in Australian Work and Leisure, Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, Occasional Paper 3/2008.

Throsby, David, (2008), 'Vulnerability and threat: Insights for the future implementation of Art. 8', Information Document, Diversity of Cultural Expressions, Paris: UNESCO.

Throsby, David, (2008), 'Culture in sustainable development: Insights for the future implementation of Art. 13', Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, Paris: UNESCO.

Throsby, David (2008) 'About Digital cultural goods', interviewed by Yann Nicholas for Communications & Strategies, no. 71, 3rd quarter 2008: 139–142

Throsby, David (2008), 'Culture and development—making the connection', Commonwealth People, London: Commonwealth Foundation.

Throsby, David (2008), 'Economics and cultural capital', in M. Nadarajah and Ann Tomoko Yamamoto (eds.), Urban Crisis: Culture and the Sustainability of Cities conference proceedings, Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Throsby, David (2008), 'The value of heritage', Proceedings of Heritage Economics Workshop Canberra, 11-12 October 2007, Canberra: Department of Water, Heritage and the Arts.

Throsby, David (2008), 'Opposition by numbers' Review of Kornai, By Force of Thought, and Samuelson and Barnett (eds), Inside the Economist's Mind, appearing in Times Literary Supplement, No. 5471, 8 February, p. 30.

Throsby, David (2008), Review of Golvan, Copyright Law and Practice, appearing in Australian Book Review, January.Throsby, David (2008) 'A truce in the culture wars?' Sydney Morning Herald, 26 April.

2007

Throsby, David (2007) 'Regional aspects of heritage economics: analytical issues and policy application,' in Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, 13(1): 21–30.

Throsby, David (2007) 'Preferred work patterns of creative artists' Journal of Economics and Finance, 31(3): 395–402.

Throsby, David (2007), 'Change and challenge: two decades in the economics of art and culture', Economia della Cultura, 4/2007:399–408.

Throsby, David (2007), 'Global convergence and the challenges to cultural policy', Review of Cultural Economics, 10(2): 3–14.

Throsby, David and Anita Zednik (2007), Employment and Output for the Cultural Industries, Macquarie Economics Research Paper 5/2007, Macquarie University.

Throsby, David (2007) Interviewed by Kevin Finn, published in Open Manifesto: Some Thoughts on Graphic Design (3) Finn Creative.

Throsby, David (2007), 'La economia y la cultura: un encuentro busca de soluciones', in Carlos M. M. Elia and Hector Schargorodsky (eds.), Economia de la Cultura conference, Sept 2004, Buenos Aires.

Throsby, David, (2007) Review of Coyle, The Soulful Science, appearing in Times Literary Supplement  7 September.

Throsby, David, (2007) Review of Nelson Economics for Humans, and Foley Adam's Fallacy, appearing in Times Literary Supplement  23 March.

Throsby, David (2007), 'Culture, politics and policies: the case of the cultural industries' Proceedings of a Conference 'Culture, Politics and Policies' held in Lille, 15-17 March 2007. Lille: Institut International Erasme, Université Charles de Gaulle Lille, and CNRS

2006

Ginsburgh, Victor A. and David Throsby (eds) (2006), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland.

Throsby, David (2006), Does Australia Need a Cultural Policy? Platform Papers No. 7, Sydney: Currency House Inc.

Jeffri, Joan and David Throsby (2006), 'Life after dance: career transition of professional dancers,' International Journal of Arts Management 8(3). 54–63.

Throsby, David (2006) 'An artistic production function: Theory and an application to Australian visual artists', Journal of Cultural Economics, 30(1): 1–14.

Throsby, David (2006), 'Introduction and overview', in Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland, pp. 33–22.

Bryant, William D.A. and David Throsby (2006), 'Creativity and the behavior of artists', in Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland, pp. 508–529.

Rizzo, Ilde and David Throsby (2006), 'Cultural heritage: economic analysis and public policy', in Victor A. Ginsburgh and David Throsby (eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland, pp. 984–1016

Throsby, David (2006), 'The economics of the creative city: iconic architecture and the urban experience', in Robert Freestone, Bill Randolph and Caroline Butler-Bowdon (eds.), Talking about Sydney: Population, Community and Culture in Contemporary Sydney, Sydney: University of NSW Press, pp.149-162.

Throsby, David (2006) 'Paying for the Past: Economics, Cultural Heritage and Public Policy' The University of Adelaide Joseph Fisher Lecture, 16 August 2006.

Throsby, David (2006), 'The value of cultural heritage: what can economics tell us?', in Kate Clark, ed., Capturing the Public Value of Heritage. The Proceedings of the London Conference 25–26 January. London: English Heritage, pp. 40–43.

Throsby, David (2006), 'Economic aspects of arts education', invited paper given at World Conference on Arts Education, Building Creative Capacities for the 21st Century, Lisbon, Portugal, 7 March. Published at: http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/file_download.php/93ed02cc5fb1c52daaa5f15cad4483d3David+Throsby.pdf

Throsby, David (2006), Review of Schabas The Natural Origins of Economics, appearing in Times Literary Supplement.