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Md. Al-Amin Pramanik


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  • Title: Mr
  • Position: PhD Student - Department of Economics

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Student information

  • Load: PhD Student Full Time
  • Principal supervisor: Doctor Pundarik Mukhopadhaya
  • Associate supervisor: Professor Jeffrey Sheen
  • Date of submission: 22/01/2013
  • Thesis title: Poverty and Gender Inequality among the Ready-Made Garment(RMG) Workers: The Case of Bangladesh
  • Abstract: This paper examines the effects of trade liberalisation on Bangladeshi female workers especially those working in ready-made garments industry in different parts of Bangladesh. It questions the assumption that in Bangladesh, trade liberation has created ample opportunities for young Bangladeshi female workers for paid jobs in export-oriented sectors but not equally all over the country. This research will first investigate whether there is a differential treatment to female garments workers in different industrial area in terms of salary, working hours, promotion, and non-financial benefits e.g. long term maternity leave, medical leave and others. Quantitative methods based on a primary database will be used to answer the research questions. A stratified sampling method will be used such that the areas/industries chosen for data collection will have the following characteristic: industrial area, industrial unit, number of employees, employment opportunities, demography, productivity, natural calamities, and poverty. From every 5th or 10th industry, depending on the total number of industries in the selected industrial area, an industry will be selected for data collection. As well as examining the socio-economic impact of trade liberalisation on female workers in different export oriented industries in general, an effort will be made to measure and compare the effects between selected industrial areas in terms of location, population, poverty, natural calamities, taxes and others facilities offered by the government. The findings of this study will help policy-makers of both the government and owners of the industries to find ways to augment welfare of female workers in the garment industry in general, and export-oriented industries in particular.
  • Purpose: This paper investigates the effect of how different monetary and non-monetary indicators on the poverty among RMG workers in Bangladesh and compares between Export Processing Zone (EPZ) and non-EPZ areas.
  • Originality: This paper used primary cross-sectional data collected through a structured questionnaire.
  • Key Literature/theoretical perspective: It is opined in the literature that RMG industry has contributed and increased emphasis on women’s employment, income, consumption, and campaigns to improve their health, right, equality, and empowerment.
  • Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on 495 primary samples from five different industrial zones in Bangladesh. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) this study developed a new method for measuring poverty.
  • Findings: This paper finds various dimensions of poverty such as income, consumption, better working facilities, career prospect and housing condition. This study also finds that monthly salary is the most influential indicators of income while safe drinking water and daily meat intake have significant influence on consumption. Another dimension of poverty, better working facilities, is determined by the availability of medical facilities and maternity leave. Career Prospect is emerged as a new determining factor of poverty.
  • Research limitations/implications: Practical and Social implications: As a policy prescription the paper suggests that stakeholders including government and owners of the RMG industry should focus attention on making the industry a more and equal worker friendly and also sustainable platform for worker’s equal well-being.
  • Keywords: Poverty, SEM, RMG and Bangladesh.

Key Words: Trade Liberalisation, Gender, Bangladesh, Readymade Garments, Capability, Employment, Poverty


  • "Trade Liberalisation and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy & Female Workers" fiscal FRONTIERS; A JOURNAL OF BCS (CUSTOMS & VAT) ASSOCIATION' Seventh Issue (2010) pp 75-94


  • Department for International Dedelopment (DFID) scolarship for Postgraduate Certificate In Goverenment Financial management study at Ulster University, UK.
  • Japan Development Scholarship (JDS)  for Master of Economics  ( 2004-2006)at Yamaguchi University, Japan.
  • Macquarie Research Excellence Scholarship (MQRES)for PhD programme in Economics