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Leanne Carter

Photo of Leanne Carter
  • Title: Doctor
  • Positions:
    • Senior Lecturer - Department of Marketing and Management
    • Academic Director of PACE - Internships, Mentoring Programmes, Conference Panels and Work Integrated Learning

Contact Details

Areas of Expertise

  • Internal Marketing in public sector and for-profit and not-for-profit organisations
  • Consumer Behaviour and Social marketing
  • Work Integrated Learning, Internships and Community Engagement

Profile

Leanne is a Senior Lecturer in Marketing the Faculty of Business and Economics at Macquarie University.  Her research focuses on consumer behaviour, internal marketing, market orientation and employability as a result of the graduate capabilities that are developed as a result of internships and other work integrated learning activities experienced by students. In addition, Leanne has an interest in learning orientation, business simulations, peer assessment and social marketing. Her latest textbook is Social Marketing: Good Intentions 2nd Edition, examines current social, environmental, health and safety issues affecting individuals and their communities.  It provides a critical look at the barriers and challenges to behaviour change. Having 15 years experiences in industry before commencing her career as an academic, Leanne’s links with industry will ensure strong connections between academia ad practice for the future employability of our students.

Before entering the world of academia, Leanne worked for organisations such as McDonald's, Woolworths Ltd., Australian Direct Marketing Association and Yellow Pages in both line management and senior management roles. These roles involved the development and implementation of strategies for new systems, technologies, marketing and human resources. She commenced her university teaching career at the University of Western Sydney in 1998 before joining Macquarie University in 2001.

Leanne Carter has a PhD and Commerce Degree in Marketing with First Class honours. She is also is a qualified teacher.

Some personal achievements Leanne has accomplished throughout her career include:

  • Reuter Roth Award, 1983 for Best Health Audio Visual Package.Awarded as part of the Diploma in Teaching.
  • First Prize, Best General Safety Training Video, 1987. Awarded by the International Congress of Occupational Health and Safety incorporating the Safety Institute of Australia.
  • Marketing Research Prize for outstanding achievement in Marketing Research, 1992. Awarded as part of the Bachelor of Commerce.
  • New Teacher Award for outstanding achievement in university teaching, 1998. Awarded to new teaching staff across the faculty for outstanding achievement.
  • Best Doctoral Paper at the Academy of Marketing Conference, UK, 2007.
  • 2012:Awards For Marketing Excellence Australian Marketing Institute, Australian Marketing Institute.
  • 2013: B/HERT Award for Deloitte Fastrack Program, B/HERT.
  • 2014:Macquarie University Research Excellence Award -Excellence in Research – Business, Management and Economics, Macquarie University.

Research awards

Awards

  • 2014:Macquarie University Research Excellence Award -Excellence in Research – Business, Management and Economics, Macquarie University.
  • 2013: B/HERT Award for Deloitte Fastrack Program, B/HERT.
  • 2012:AWARDS FOR MARKETING EXCELLENCE AUSTRALIAN MARKETING INSTITUTE, AUSTRALIAN MARKETING INSTITUTE.
  • 2007: Best Paper in Colloquium, 2007 Academy of Marketing Conference. [Category: Research]

Research areas

Leanne's research interests to date cover marketing orientation, marketing strategy, consumer engagement, interpersonal relational competence and learning and teaching areas of employability, simulations and peer assessment.

Previously Leanne has published in the area of internal marketing, as well as social marketing and specifically, the Sponsorship of Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.

Research Interests

Leanne has published in the areas of internal marketing, market orientation, organizational learning, and teaching and learning in both Australia and overseas. Her current research interests include: social marketing, wellbeing, internal marketing and the enhancement of teaching and learning through internships and community engagement. She is currently writing a textbook on Social Marketing with Associate Professor Cynthia Webster.

Research Areas

Marketing

  • Internal Marketing
  • Market Orientation
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Consumer engagement
  • Social Marketing

Management

  • Enhancing employee performance
  • Interpersonal relational competence

Learning and Teaching

  • Employbility
  • Work Integrated Learning
  • Simulations
  • Peer Assessment

Publications

journal toggle icon open Refereed Journal Articles

  • Chavan, M. & Carter, L. (2017) First year management student’s – expectations and perceptions, International Journal of Educational Management, (in press)
  • Chavan, M., Carter, L. & Toderella, E. (2017) The value of experiential & action learning in business ethics education –Co-creation and Social benefits for students, Management Learning Journal; Special Issue on Critical Action Learning (in press)
  • Islam, Zahidul, D’Alessandro, Steven, Furner, Michael, Johnson, Lester, Gray, David and Carter, Leanne (2016) Brand switching pattern discovery by data mining techniques for the telecommunication industry in Australia.  Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 20 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v20i0.1420 (tier A, information systems).
  • Carter, L., Gray, D., DÁlessandro, S. & Johnson, L. (2016) The “I love to hate them” relationship with cell phone service providers: The role of customer inertia and anger, Services Marketing Quarterly, Volume 37, Number 4.
  • D'Alessandro, S., Johnson, L., Gray, D., & Carter, L. (2015). The market performance indicator : a macro understanding of service provider switching.   Journal of Services Marketing, 29 (4), 302-313.
  • D'Alessandro, S., Johnson, L., Gray, D., & Carter, L. M. (2014). Consumer Satisfaction versus churn in the case of upgrades from 3G to 4G cell networks.   Marketing Letters., doi: 10.1007/s11002-014-9284-3.
  • Hawse, S., Wood, L.N., & Carter, L. M. (2014). From taxonomy to lens: professional development frameworks for early career engineers.   European Journal of Engineering Education.
  • D'Alessandro, S., Gray, D., Johnson, L., & Carter, L. M. (2014). The market performance indicator: A macro understanding of service provider switching. Journal of Services Marketing.
  • Murray, P., Gray, D., Carter, L. and Miller, K. (2012) "Rethinking market orientation through learning practices", International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, Volume 17 (3), 8-32 ISSN 1440-5377
  • Carter, L. and Gray, D. (2007) "Internal Market Orientation: Initiating and Enhancing Relationships", The Marketing Review, Westburn Publishers, UK., Vol 7, No. 4, 385-400.
  • Daruwalla, P., Carter, L. and Howlett, D., (2006) "Business education: enhancing learning through simulations from an Australian perspective", International Journal of Business Research, Vol. V, No. 1, pp 27-37.
  • Murray, P. and Carter, L. (2005) "Improving Marketing Intelligence through Learning Systems and Knowledge Communities in Not-for-Profit Workplaces (Paper A)," Journal of Workplace Learning, November, Vol. 17 Issue 7, 421- 435.

Articles in Preoceedings

  • Carter, L. (2000), Issues confronting the Retailers of the Blacktown Local Government Area", Western Sydney Research Institute Journal, July, 2000
  • Caruso, D., Carter, L., Romero, A., & Erichsen, S. (2014). Student satisfaction and WIL : a case study of a marketing capstone unit., ACEN 2014 : Conference proceedings of the 2014 Australian Collaborative Education Network National Conference : Work Integrated Learning : Building Capacity, Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN), 114-119.
  • Buchanan, J., Webster, C., & Carter, L. (2014). Loyalty rewards : benign business practice, or a potentially harmful inducement?   ISM 2014 : International Social Marketing Conference : Conference Proceedings, Australian Association of Social Marketing, 1-7.
  • Webster, C., Carter, L., & Buchanan, J. (2014). Identifying the competition as desire. ISM 2014 : International Social Marketing Conference : Conference Proceedings, Australian Association of Social Marketing, 1-5.
  • Caruso, D., Carter, L. M., Romero, A., & Erichsen, S. (2014).  Student Satisfaction and WIL: A case study of a marketing capstone unit.   Work Integrated Learning: Building Capacity, ACEN Conference. Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, September 29 to October 3.Published in proceedings.
  • Carter, L. M., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Mackaway, J. (2014). Socially inclusive practice in PACE: Meeting the needs of specific learners in PACE units – Information and Resources for Practitioners.
  • Mackaway, J., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Carter, L. M. (2014). Work-integrated learning and the 'inclusive' challenge of preparing a diverse student cohort for the world beyond the academy. Higher Education Research and Development Journal.
  • Carter, L. M. & Romero, A. (2014).  Work integrated learning and student satisfaction: a qualitative study in a business school.   Our university, our future: selected research from Learning and Teaching Week 2013, Macquarie University, 19-24.
  • Mackaway, J., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Carter, L. (2014).  Work-integrated learning and the ’inclusive' challenge of preparing a diverse student cohort for the world beyond the academy.   Research and development in higher education : higher education in a globalized world, 37.  Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia, 226-236.
  • Gellatly, L., Carter, L. M., & D'Alessandro, S. (2013). Doing the right thing - but for who? A qualitative study of Australian academics.   Proceedings of the Australia New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2013, The University of Auckland Business School, University of Auckland, 1-7

books toggle icon open Books

  • Webster, C., Carter, L., D'Alessandro, S., & Gray, D. (2014). Social Marketing Good Intentions 2nd Edition,. Prahran VIC: Tilde University Press.
  • Webster, C., Carter, L., D'Alessandro, S., & Gray, D. (2013). Social Marketing Good Intentions. Prahran VIC:  Tilde University:Press.

Social Marketing: Good Intentions previews a number of current social, environmental, health and safety issues affecting individuals and their communities. The aim is to take a critical look at the barriers and challenges to behaviour change. Written in an investigative manner, this text can be a key asset for students intending to pursue careers in the public sector, in community health, or in environmental sustainability. It also highlights the power of marketing in the modern world. Each chapter focuses on a specific difficult topic and incorporates the research needs, ethical concerns and theoretical approaches to tackling behaviour change. Overall, the aim of this book is to stimulate active engagement with these issues. The book is structured in four parts.  Part I “Setting the Scene: Good reasons for behaviour change” addresses the need for behaviour change and the relationship between overconsumption and well-being.  Part II “Live Long and Prosper: Health & well-being” centres on such issues as healthy eating, exercise, early cancer detection and safe sex.  Part III “Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder: Power & perception” discusses the sensitive topic of eating disorders.  Part IV “Back to Basics: Environment & sustainable living” considers recycling, conservation, climate change and energy efficiency.

chapters toggle icon open Book Chapters

  • Carter, L., Ruskin, J. & Cassilles, A. (2016). Three Modes of Work Integrated Learning: Stories of Success, in  Wood, L.N. & Breyer, Y.A (Editors) Success in Higher Education: transition to, within and from university, Springer, Singapore, Part III, 203-215.
  • Mackaway, J., Carter, L., Winchester-Seeto, T. & Whiteford, G. (2016), Inclusive PACE: an experience for all students, in Sachs, J & Clark, L. (Editors), Learning Through Community Engagement: vision and practice in higher education.  edited by Sachs, J & Clark, L., Springer, Singapore, Chapter 13, 199-214.

conference toggle icon open Conferences and Presentations

  • Gelatly, L., Carter, L. & D’Alessandro, S. (2016) Public Sector Motivation and Employee Performance: a qualitative study of Australian academics, ANZMAC, Marketing in a Post-Disciplinary Era, 5-7 December, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Buchanan, J., Carter, L.M. & Webster, C. (2016), An epidemiological framework for problem gambling and electronic gaming machines: an Australian perspective, ANZMAC, Marketing in a Post-Disciplinary Era, 5-7 December, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Chavan, M. & Carter, L. (2016). Experiential Learning Activities, Ethics and Employability. ACEN Conference, WIL 2020: Pushing the Boundaries, Sydney, Australia, September 28 to September 30.
  • Chavan, M. & Carter, L. (2016). What do employers want? What do students have? Needs Assessment of Graduate Attributes for Work Integrated Learning? ACEN Conference, WIL 2020: Pushing the Boundaries, Sydney, Australia, September 28 to September 30.
  • Carter, L. M. & Sonnenreich, W. (2015, October). Intrapreneurship and entrepreneurship, online portals and work integrated learning programs: evidence from an Australian business school.  44th NSEE Annual Conference, National Society for Experiential Education (NSEE), Florida, United States of America
  • Semple, A., Carter, L. M., White, K., McLachlan, K., & Lloyd, K. (2015, August). Integration of ethical practice in WIL: Diverse Institutional Frameworks, Experiences, and Approaches.   19th World Conference on Co-operative and Work Integrated Education, WACE Conference, Kyoto, Japan. Kyoto Singyo University
  • Sonnenreich, W., Carter, L. M., & Firth, O. (2015, August). Preparing International Students for 21st Century Business Challenges - Employer and Educator perspectives.   19th World Conference on Co-operative and Work Integrated Education, WACE Conference, Kyoto, Japan.. Kyoto Singyo University.
  • Carter, L. M., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Mackaway, J. (2014). Socially inclusive practice in PACE: Meeting the needs of specific learners in PACE units – Information and Resources for Practitioners.   Learning and Teaching Week, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia- NSW.    Website: https://staff.mq.edu.au/public/download.jsp?id=144304
  • Bilsland, C., Carter, L. M., & Wood, L. (2013, December). Work integrated learning for Business studies in Vietnam.  The 5th "Engaging with Vietnam: An interdisciplinary Dialogue" Conference Integrating Knowledge: The Multiple Ways of Knowing Vietnam, Hanoi, Viet Nam. 17th – 18th December 2013.
  • Carter, L. M., West, A., & Winzar, H. (2013, September). Student satisfaction, Industry Engagement and PACE in the Marketing Discipline.   Our University, Our Future: Celebrating Learning and Teaching 2013, Sydney, Australia- NSW. 6 to 10 September, Macquarie University
  • Jack, R. & Carter, L. M. (2013, September). Bringing an international perspective to International Business through Industry Partners.   Our University, Our Future: Celebrating Learning and Teaching 2013, Sydney, Australia- NSW. Description: 6 to 10 September, Macquarie University
  • Thornthwaite, L. & Carter, L. M. (2013, September). Industry engagement in the Human Resources Major. Our University, Our Future: Celebrating Learning and Teaching 2013, Sydney, Australia- NSW. : 6 to 10 September, Macquarie University 
  • Carter, L. & Gray, D.M. (2009) "Keys to Relational Competence in Internal Marketing", Proceedings from Australian New Zealand Marketing Academy Annual Conference (ANZMAC), Melbourne December 2009.
  • Carter, L., & Gray, D.M. (2008) "Relational Competence, Learning, and Management-Employee Reciprocity: Extending the IMO scales Improving Internal Market Orientation", Proceedings from Academy of Marketing Annual Conference, Aberdeen, July 2008.
  • Carter, L. and Gray, D. (2007) "Internal Market Orientation: Initiating and Enhancing Relationships within the Firm", Marketing Theory into Practice, Academy of Marketing Conference, July, Surrey, UK, ISBN1-872058-09-4.
  • Carter, L. and Murray, P. (2007) "Defining Market Orientation Success through Learning Cultures", Marketing Theory into Practice, Academy of Marketing Conference, July, Surrey, UK, ISBN1-872058-09-4.
  • Carter, L. and Gray, D. (2007) "Putting Relational Competence into Internal Marketing" December ANZMAC Conference, Dunedin, New Zealand.
  • Murray, P., and Carter, L. (2005) "Inter-organisational learning competencies for market orientation: Developmental theory", Convergence and Divergence of Management Theory and Practice, 7 th -10 th December, Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Canberra, Australia, ISBN 1 74088 245 8.
  • Howlett, D., Daruwalla, P., and Carter, L., (2005) "The role of criteria in peer assessments in management education and development: Implications, considerations and findings", Convergence and Divergence of Management Theory and Practice, 7 th -10 th December, Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, Canberra, Australia, ISBN 1 74088 245 8.
  • Buchanan, J., Carter, L., and Ng, S. (2004) "Marketing and Ethics in Not-for-Profit Organisations: An Australian Study, Marketing Accountabilities and Responsibilities, 29 November-1 December, ANZMAC Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, (NOMINATED FOR BEST PAPER AWARD).
  • Carter, L., Howlett, D., and Daruwalla, P. (2004) "Evaluations of a Peer Assessment Instrument on Group Work for Marketing and Management Students: a Multi-Institutional Study", Marketing Accountabilities and Responsibilities, 29 November-1 December, ANZMAC Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Murray, P and Carter, L. (2004) Improving Marketing intelligence through Learning Systems and Knowledge Communities in a Not-for-Profit Workplace," Continuous Innovation:Strategic Priorities for the Global Knowledge Economy, 5 th International CiNet Conference, September 22-25, Sydney, Australia.
  • Carter, L., (2003), "Marketing orientation, societal orientation and organisational learning, in the not for profit/public sector". Celebration of Ehrenberg and Bass,. Marketing Discoveries, Knowledge and Contribution, ANZMAC, 2003 Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
  • Roberts, Z., & Carter, L., (2003) "The impact of technology-based systems on relationship marketing in the banking sector." Celebration of Ehrenberg and Bass, Marketing Discoveries, Knowledge and Contribution ANZMAC Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
  • Roberts, Z., & Carter, L., (2003), "Do loyalty programs build a long-term relationship with customers? A banking perspective." Celebration of Ehrenberg and Bass, Marketing Discoveries, Knowledge and Contribution, ANZMAC, 2003 Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
  • Murray, P., & Carter, L., (2002) "Marketing Orientation and Organisational Learning: Conceptual Theory Development," Marketing Theory, ANZMAC, December, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Wilkinson, I.F., & Carter, L., (2001), "The attitudes and beliefs of the sponsors of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games towards managing their sponsorship," Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice, ANZMAC, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Wilkinson, I.F., & Carter, L., (2000), "Sponsorship and the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games," Visionary Marketing for the 21 st Century: Facing the Challenge, ANZMAC, Gold Coast, Australia.

Other Seminar Presentations

  • “Why Relationship Competence Matters: Improving Internal Market Orientation and Employee Performance”, Doctoral Colloquium Presentation, Academy of Marketing Conference, Kingston Business School, Surrey, UK, July, 2007. WON BEST PAPER AWAR
  • “Inter-organisational learning competencies, Collaboration and Marketing Orientation in the Public Sector” Presentation to the School of Management, Charles Sturt University, July, 2005.

Other Articles

  • Carter, L. (2000), Issues confronting the Retailers of the Blacktown Local Government Area", Western Sydney Research Institute Journal, July, 2000

reports toggle icon open Reports

2012: Gray, D., Carter, L.M.,, & D'Alessandro, S., State of the Mobile Nation The Anatomy of Bill Shock – An Analysis of Mobile Phone User Experience in Australia 2012., submitted to ACCC and Department of Fair Trading.   [Applied or Integrative/application Scholarship]  

Description:

November 22, 2012

An analysis of the extent of bill-shock in Australia. The study analysed 200 physical bills in August 2012 to determine the extent to which mobile phone consumers experienced mobile phone bills which were higher than they expected, This report is the latest in a series of reports covering consumer brand switching in the industry. This report is available in ACCC and Department of Fair Trading.

Authors:
David Gray
Senior Lecturer- Marketing, Department of Marketing and Management at Macquarie University
Leanne Carter
Senior Lecturer –Marketing and Faculty Academic of PACE (Professional and Community Engagement) in Faculty of Business and Economics at Macquarie University
Steve D'Alessandro
Professor in Marketing at Charles Sturt University

Affiliations / activities

  • Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy
  • Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management
  • Academy of Marketing- UK
  • Australian Marketing Institute

Leanne has been a reviewer for the following journals and peer-reviewed conferences:

  • The International Journal of Human Resource Management
  • Journal of Consumer Behaviour
  • Marketing Intelligence and Planning
  • Australasian Journal of Marketing
  • Journal of Management and Organisation
  • International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences.
  • Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN)
  • Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC)  
  • Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference (ANZAM)

Community engagement

Leanne currently works with industry to co-create learning for students as they solve real marketing problems for organsiations. These organisations include PwC, P&G, Honeywell and Myer. This enhances the WIL experiences for students developing employability skills and networks.

Between 2011 and 2015 Leanne was the Faculty Academic Director of PACE for the Business and Economics and built up a WIL experience for all students in the faculty. At the end of her tenure in this role, over 3,000 students annually engaged with industry as part of their degree and over 200 industry partners had been secured within the faculty.

In her time as a university lecturer, Leanne has also made a contribution to literacy enhancement of students and teaching innovations during work on various committees. In addition, she was the Marketing Discipline Co-ordinator as was responsible for the design and implementation of the new marketing major as well as the co-ordinator for Internships in the Department of Marketing and Management.


phd supervision toggle icon open PhD Student Supervision

Current Research Students

  • Christine Bilsland  - “Transnational Higher Education approaches to building effective Work Integrated Learning in offshore undergraduate business degree programmes”., PhD Supervision – Principal Supervisor.
  • Priscilla Murphy-Too –“ Conceptions of Learning and Teaching Mathematics”. PhD Supervision - Associate Supervisor.
  • Sally Hawse – “Acquiring Wisdom: Embedding Threshold Moments into Expertise Transfer Programs”.   PhD Supervision - Associate Supervision.

Completed Research Students

  • 2013 -  Alexandria Cantalli –Thesis title: “Look Before You Leap: The Influence of Marketing Orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation on the Adoption of E-Business Practices in Australian SME Retailers”.  (Distinction with entry into PhD program)  Supervision PGCert – Principal Supervisor
  • 2013 - . Angela Romero Thesis title: “Physical Inactivity: Born and Bread. Converting Attitudes to Behaviour”.  (received 1st Class Honours) Supervision Honours – Principal Supervisor
  • 2010, Lauren Gellatly; Thesis title: “Internal Marketing and Employee Performance in the Public Sector”. Supervision of Honours – Prinicpal Supervisor.
  • 2004 Stanley Ng; Thesis title: “Marketing and Ethics in Not-for-Profit Organisations”. Supervision Honours. (joint supervision with Associate Professor Mark Jones); (Conference Paper associated with this thesis was NOMINATED FOR BEST PAPER AWARD)

Media Mentions

Publications

Teaching

Leanne is involved in teaching subjects in marketing at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Subject areas include Marketing Principles, Marketing Management, Social Marketing and Sustainability, Retailing, Channels of Distribution, Sales Management and Professional and Community Engagement.

  • Marketing Fundamentals
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Social Marketing
  • Retailing
  • Distribution
  • Professional and Community Engagement

Lecturing and Tutoring

2016 to Present-Unit Convenor

  • Marketing Project
  • Business Internships
  • Business Entrepreneurship
  • Business to Business Marketing

2011- 2015 Unit Convenor

  • Marketing Management and Managerial Marketing
  • Professional and Community Engagement
  • Leadership and Community Engagement
  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Corporate EngagementGlobal Business Corporate Engagement

2010- Lecturer-in-Charge &/or Lecturer

  • Social Marketing and Sustainability
  • Marketing Management
  • Sales Management
  • Retail Operations
  • Channels of Distribution
  • Marketing Fundamentals
  • Professional and Community Engagement

2001-2009 Lecturer-in-Charge &/or Lecturer:

  • Managerial Marketing
  • Distribution Decisions
  • Product and Pricing Decisions
  • Marketing Principles

1998-2000 Lecturer-in-Charge &/or Lecturer

  • Marketing Principles
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Brand Management
  • Marketing Planning Project
  • Channels of Distribution
  • Retail Management
  • Principles of Management
  • Organisational Behaviour
  • Human Resource Management

Overview of Academic Employment

  • 2016 to present Senior Lecturer in Marketing and Program Director for Bachelor of Commerce Porgram, Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University.
  • 2011 to 2015 Seniour Lecturer and Faculty Academic Direcor of PACE (Professional and Community Engagement), Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University.
  • 2006- 2010  Appointed Lecturer in Marketing, Department of Business (now the Department of Marketing and Management), Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University.
  • 2001 Appointed Associate Lecturer in Marketing, Department of Business, Faculty of Economic and Financial Studies (now the Faculty of Business and Economics), Macquarie University.  
  • 2000 Appointed to continuing position, Associate Lecturer in Marketing, School of Management, University of Western Sydney, Nirimba Campus.
  • 1999 Associate Lecturer (contract position) in Marketing, School of Management, University of Western Sydney, Nirimba Campus.
  • 1998 Appointed Casual Lecturer and Tutor, School of Management, University of Western Sydney, Nirimba and Hawkesbury Campuses.