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Nick Parr

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Photo of Nick Parr
  • Title: Associate Professor
  • Position: Associate Professor - Department of Marketing and Management
  • Unit Name:
    • BUS828: Population and Workforce Planning
    • MGMT256: Workforce Demography and Planning
  • Qualifications: BSc (Hons) First Class, MSc., PhD.

Contact Details

Areas of Expertise

  • Demography and the workforce
  • Fertility and family formation
  • Migrants in Australia
  • Statistical demography
  • Family policies
  • Demographic projections

Current Lecturing & Tutoring

  • Population and Workforce Planning
  • Workforce Demography and Planning

Profile

Nick holds a PhD and MSc in Social Statistics from Southampton University in the UK and a BSc (Hons) in Mathematics from Warwick University. He has lectured at Macquarie University in the field of demography since completing his PhD in 1992, and was awarded a Faculty of Business and Economics Teaching Award in 2008 and an award for Excellence in Research Impact in 2014.

Nick has published extensively in leading academic journals in demography and related areas, as well as producing book chapters and conference papers.

The journals in which he has published include:

  • Demographic Research, 
  • Journal of Population Economics,
  • The Journal of Population Research,
  • The Journal of Biosocial Science,
  • The Economic Record,
  • Population Research and Policy Review, 
  • The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health,
  • The Journal of Medical Screening, and
  • Economic and Labour Relations Review.

Together with Ross Guest (Griffith University) he was awarded an ARC Discovery Grant (Project Number DP0984378) to support work on a project entitled "An econometric analysis of the effects of family benefit policies on fertility, saving and labour force participation in Australia". His research has also been awarded funding by a range of Government Department, Industry, Professional Organisation,Think Tank and Community organisations. He has provided invited expert advice to senior Federal and State politicians. His research has been attracted both media coverage and use in Australia's public debate.

Nick has an extensive record of service to the demographic profession. He served for ten years (1996-2006) on the National Council of the Australian Population Association (APA), being National President from 2002-04 and National Vice President from 2000-02. He was President of the NSW Regional Group of APA from 1997-2001 and Secretary/Treasurer from 2005-2007. He was Conference Convener for the Eleventh National Conference of the Australian Population Association, which was held in Sydney in 2002. He has acted as a referee for a wide range of international journals and has served as a judge for the WD Borrie Essay Prize on four occasions.

He is currently Deputy Head of the Department of Marketing and Management.

Research grants

Major Grants

  • 2015 Parr, N., Taksa, L., Balnave, N., Smith, C. and Croke, B. Analyses of Historical Patterns of Schooling, Religion, and Socio-demographics of Australia's Population and Creation of Public Access Databases. Enterprise Partnership Scheme Pilot Research Grant with Catholic Education Commission NSW Funding Awarded $383,000, including $99,412 in cash.
  • 2014 Parr, N.  Fertility Levels and Intentions in New South Wales. Funding Source: NSW Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Funding Awarded: $27,409.
  • 2012 Tickle, L., Parr, N. and Li, J The Cost of Living Longer: Projecting the Effects of Prospective Mortality Improvement on Economic Support Ratios for a Selection of OECD Countries. Funding Source:Australian Actuarial Research Grants. Funding Awarded $18,500.
  • 2012 Markey, R.Parr, N., Ferris, S., Kyng, T., Lavermicocca, C., Muhidin, S., Thornthwaite, L. and Wright, C.A National Portable Long Service Leave (LSL) Scheme. Funding Source. McKell Institute. Funding awarded $25,000.
  • 2011 Li. J., Tickle, L. and Parr, N. "An Evaluation of the Forecasting Performance of the Poisson Common Factor Model". Australian Actuarial Research Grants. Total funding $13,000. 
  • 2011 Opeskin, B. and Parr, N. Population Challenges for the Local Court of New South Wales: The Next 25 Years. Project commissioned by the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice. Amount Awarded $42,140.
  • 2008 Guest, R. and Parr, N. ARC Discovery Grant (Project Number DP0984378). "An econometric analysis of the effects of family benefit policies on fertility, saving and labour force participation in Australia". Amount Awarded $105,000.

Research awards

Teaching Awards

  • 2008 Faculty of Business and Economics Teaching Award.

Research Awards

  •  Research Impact, Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, 2013.

Publications

journal toggle icon open Refereed Journal Articles

  • Pardosi, J., Parr, N. and Muhidin, S. (2016) Local Government and Community Leaders' Perspectives on Child Health and Mortality and Inequity Issues in Rural Eastern Indonesia. Journal of Biosocial Science. Published online 29 April 2016 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932016000134
  • Parr, N., Li, J. and Tickle, L. A Cost of Living Longer: Projections of the Effects of Prospective Mortality Improvement on Economic Support Ratios for Fourteen More Advanced Economies. (forthcoming 2016) Accepted for publication in Population Studies (Date of Acceptance 8/10/2015).
  • Li, J., Tickle, L. and Parr, N. (forthcoming 2016) An evaluation of the Poisson common factor model for projecting mortality jointly for both sexes using data from multiple populations. Accepted for publication in Journal of Population Research (Date of acceptance 25/3/2016)
  • Pardosi, J., Parr, N. and Muhidin, S. (forthcoming 2016) Fathers' and Infant Health and Survival in a Rural District of Eastern Indonesia. Accepted for publication in Journal of Population Research. (Date of acceptance 12/4/2016)
  • Taylor, M.P., Forbes, M.K., Opeskin, B, Parr, N, and Lanphear, B.P. (2016) The relationship between atmospheric lead emissions and aggressive crime rates. Environmental Health. 15: 23.
  • Markey, R., Ferris, S., McIvor, J., Thornthwaite, L., Wright, C.F., Muhidin, S, O'Neill, S, and Parr, N. (2016). Extending employment entitlements to non-standard workers: Alternative models for long service leave portability Journal of Industrial Relations. 58(1): 46-68.
  • Pardosi, J.F., Parr, N., and Muhidin, S. (2015) Inequity Issues and Mother's Pregnancy, Delivery and Child Survival Experiences in Ende District, Indonesia. Journal of Biosocial Science. 47(6): 780-802.
  • Ferris, S., Parr, N., Markey, R. and Kyng, T. (2015) Long Service Leave: Past, Present, and Future. Australian Journal of Actuarial Practice. 3: 5-22.
  • Parr, N. and Guest,R. (2014) "A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards". Demographic Research. 31(11): 275-318. 
  • Opeskin, B. and Parr, N. (2014) "Population, Crime and Courts: Demographic Projections of the Future Workforce of the New South Wales Magistracy". Journal of Judicial Administration.  23(4): 233-252
  • Guest, R. and Parr, N. (2013) Family Policy and Couples' Labour Supply: An Empirical Assessment.  Journal of Population Economics.  26(4):1631-1660
  • Parr, N. (2012) Trends in Differentials in the Workforce Participation of Mothers With Young Children in Australia 2002-08, Journal of Population Research, 29(3): 203-227.
  • Massey, S.J.L. and Parr, N. (2012) The Socioeconomic Status of Migrant Populations in Regional and Rural Australia and Its Implications for Future Population Policy, Journal of Population Research, 29(1): 1-21.
  • Parr, N. and Guest, R. (2011) The Contribution of Increases in Family Benefits to Australia's Early 21st Century Fertility Increase: An Empirical Analysis, Demographic Research, 25:6: 214-244.
  • Guest, R. and Parr, N. (2010) The effects of family benefits on childbearing decisions: a household optimising approach applied to Australia. Economic Record. 86(275): 609-619.
  • Parr, N. (2010) Satisfaction with Life as an Antecedent of Fertility: Partner + Happiness = Children? Demographic Research. 22(21):635-661
  • Parr, N.(2010) Childlessness among men in Australia. Population Research and Policy Review. 29(3): 319-338.
  • Weerasinghe, D.P., Yusuf, F, and Parr, N.J.. (2010) Geographic variation in invasive cardiac procedure rates in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Public Health.18(3):209-217.
  • Weerasinghe, D.P., Parr, N.J. and Yusuf, F (2009). Analysis using life tables of the major causes of death and the differences between country of birth groups in New South Wales, Australia. Public Health. 123(5): 351-357.
  • D. P. Weerasinghe, Yusuf. F. and Parr, N. J. (2009). Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in New South Wales, Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 6(1):232-245.
  • Weerasinghe, D.P, Yusuf, F. and Parr, N.J. (2009) Life lost due to premature deaths in New South Wales, Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 6(1):108-120.
  • Parr, N. (2007) Which women stop at one child in Australia. Journal of Population Research (24(2):207-225.
  • Parr, N, Ferris, S. and Mahuteau, S. (2007) The impact of children on Australian women's and men' s superannuation. Economic and Labour Relations Review 18(1):3-26.
  • Parr, N. and Siedlecky, S. (2007) Use of ' dual protection' and other combinations of contraceptive methods in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 31(6):567-570.
  • Parr, N. (2006) Do children from small families do better? Journal of Population Research. 23(1):1-25
  • Parr, N. and Guo, F. (2005). "The Occupational Concentration and Mobility of Asian Immigrants in Australia". Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. 14(3): 351-380.
  • Parr, N.J. (2005) Family Background, Schooling and Childlessness in Australia. Journal of Biosocial Science. 37(2): 229-243
  • Parr, N.J. (2003) Discontinuation of Contraceptive Use in Ghana. The Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 21(2):150-157.
  • Parr, N.. (2002) Family Planning Promotion, Contraceptive Use and Fertility Decline in Ghana. African Population Studies. 17(1): 83-101.
  • Weerasinghe, D.P. and Parr, N.J. (2002).The Effects of Wealth on Marital Fertility in Sri Lanka The Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 20(2) 112-119.
  • Parr, N., Lucas, D. and Mok, M. (2000). Branch Migration and the International Dispersal of Families. International Journal of Population Geography. 6(3): 213-227.
  • Parr, N., Boyages, J., Taylor, R., Anura, P. and Callaghan, T. (2000) Projecting Mammographic Screens. Journal of Medical Screening. 7(3): 146-151.
  • Parr, N.J. (1998) Changes in the Factors Affecting Fertility in Ghana During the Early Stages of the Fertility Decline. Genus. LIV(1-2):77-86.
  • Parr, N.J. and Mok, M. (1995) Differences in the Educational Achievements, Aspirations and Values of Birthplace Groups in New South Wales. People and Place. 3(2): 1-8.
  • Parr, N.J. (1995) Pre-marital Fertility in Liberia. Journal of Biosocial Science 27(1): 1-10.

books toggle icon open Books

Book Review

  • Parr, N.J. (2002) Review of Jacob, S. Siegel, Applied Demography: Applications to Business, Government, Law and Public Policy. San Diego: Academic. 2002. 686 pp. The Journal of Population Research. Volume 19 No.1 pp88-91.

chapters toggle icon open Book Chapters

  • Murray, P., Parr, N. and Syed, J. (2008) Tracking Executive Representation of Women at Work. Making the Link 19: 56-62.
  • Parr, N. and Murray, P. (2004) Gender unmasked: The implications for policy of demographic shifts and gender discrimination Making the Link 15: 65-69
  • Mok, M., Parr, N.J., Lee, T. and Wylie, E. (1998). A Comparative Study of IELTS and Access Test Results. In International English Language Testing System Research Reports 1998. Elicos Association Journal. Volume 1, Elicos Association, Sydney.

reports toggle icon open Consultancy Reports

  • Parr,N. (2014) Fertility levels and intentions in New South Wales. Expert Report Commissioned by the NSW Department of Planning and Environment.

  • Markey, R., Ferris, S., Kyng,T., Muhidin, S., Parr, N.,Thornthwaite, L., Wright, C.F., Levermicocca, C., and O'Neill, S. (2013) The Case for a National Portable Long Service Leave Scheme in Australia. Expert Report Commissioned by the McKell Institute.

  • Opeskin, B. and Parr, N. (2013) Population Challenges to the Local Court of New South Wales: The Next 25 Years. Expert report commissioned for the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice.

  • Parr, N. (2009) Comparisons Between the Muslim, Lebanese Muslim, and Lebanese Populations of Sydney Urban Area, Bankstown and Lakemba. Expert report requested by Baker and McKenzie on behalf of Harbour Pty Limited and Alan Jones as evidence for proceedings before the Administrative Decisions Tribunal in relation to Harbour Radio Pty Limited and Alan Jones ats Keysar Trad
  • Parr, N. and Owens, L. (2001). Demographic Report to the Parents and Citizens Association of Hunters Hill High School
  • Boyages, J., Brassil, A., Anura, P., Parr, N., Taylor, R., Beller, E., Apostolopoulos, P., and Stubbs, J. (1997) Projections of Mammographic Screens in NSW women to 2007. NSW Breast Cancer Institute Technical Report 970401.
  • Lee, T., Mok, M., Bundesen, C., & Parr, N. (1997). Specifying the Internal and Candidate Group Profiles of IELTS Results in 1996 from Australian Test Centres. Report submitted to the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) (Australia).
  • Lee, T., Mok, M., Wylie, E. and Parr, N. (1996) A Comparative Study of IELTS and ACCESS Test Results: Final Report. Access Research Project 1996 No. 1

conference toggle icon open Conferences and Presentations

Plenary Conference Addresses

  • Parr, N. (2007) The Teaching of Demography. Plenary Address to the 20th Anniversary of the Postgraduate Teaching of Population Studies at Flinders University. 18 October 2007 Function Centre Flinders University.
  • Parr, N. (2006) The Waves of Population Age Change and Silver Surfers: A Demographic Perspective on Population Ageing in New South Wales. Paper presented to the New South Wales Public Libraries Marketing Group "Sensational Seniors" Seminar held at the State Library of NSW, Macquarie Street, Sydney. 20 June, 2006.
  • Parr, N. (2004) Do Children From Small Families Do Better? Presidential Address given to the 12th Biennial Conference of the Australian Population Association at ANU Canberra, 15 September 2004.

Other Conference Papers

  • Parr, N., Li, J. and Tickle, L. (2014) The Cost of Living Longer: Projections of the Effects of Prospective Mortality Improvement on Economic Support Ratios for Fourteen More Advanced Economies. Paper presented to the European Population Conference in Budapest, Hungary 25-27 June 2014 and the World Sociological Congress in Yokohama, Japan 13-19 July 2014.
  • Guest, R. and Parr, N. (2014) "A method for socially evaluating the effects of long-run demographic paths on living standards" Paper presented to the European Population Conference in Budapest, Hungary 25-27 June 2014.
  •  Markey, R., McIvor, J., Muhidin, S., O'Neill, S., Parr, N., Thornthwaite, L. and Wright, C.F. (2014) Towards a national standard for long service leave: the case for portability. Paper presented to the Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand conference in Melbourne.
  • Parr, N. (2013) Effects of Forecast Mortality Changes on Labour Force to Population Ratios in Advanced Economies. Invited presentation to the 2013 Australia New Zealand Population Workshop Program held at Australian Bureau of Statistics, Sydney, 2-6 December 2013.
  • Parr, N. (2013) The Challenges of Ageing Populations: Implications for Economic Support Ratios. Presentation made to Macquarie University HDR Expo at Macquarie University, 6 November 2013.
  • Parr, N. and Opeskin, B. (2013) Population and Courts: Projections of the Future Workload of the New South Wales Magistracy. Presentation made to the Australian Population Association Sydney Seminar. 11 September 2013.
  • Parr, N. and Guest, R, (2012) Valuing Population Projections. Presentation to the Australian Population Association Conference in Melbourne, 5-7 December 2012.
  • Guest, R. and Parr, N. (2012)The Effects of a New Child Care Subsidy on Couples' Labour Supply in Australia: An Empirical Assessment. Paper presented to the European Association for Population Studies Conference in Stockholm, Sweden 13-16 June 2012.
  • Parr, N. (2010) Recent trends in maternal labour force participation: who works longer? Paper presented to the 15th Biennial Conference of the Australian Population Association in Surfers Paradise, Queensland 30 November-3 December 2010
  • Parr, N. and Guest, R. (2010) The contribution of recent increases to family benefits to Australia's early 21st century fertility increase: an empirical analysis. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America in Dallas, Texas, 15-17 April 2010 and the European Population Conference in Vienna, Austria 1-4 September 2010.
  • Parr, N. (2008) The socioeconomic context and spatial distribution of Australia's early 21st century increase. Paper presented to the IUSSP Seminar on 'Fertility and Public Policies in Low Fertility Countries'. At the Universitat Pompreu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain 7-8 July 2008.
  • Parr, N. (2008). Feelgood factors and fertility. Paper presented to the Australian Population Association conference in Alice Springs, Northern Territory 30 June-3 July 2008.
  • Parr, N, Ferris, S. and Mahuteau, S. (2007). Impact of gender, children, marital status and education on superannuation savings. Paper presented to the 15th Colloquium of Superannuation Researchers at University of New South Wales, Sydney 19-20 July 2007.
  • Parr, N, Ferris, S. and Mahuteau, S. (2007). Impact of children on Australians' retirement savings: policy and business implications. Paper presented to the IUSSP International Seminar on Applications of Demography in Business, Sydney 8-9 October 2007.
  • Parr, N, Ferris, S. and Mahuteau, S. (2007). Impact of children on Australians' retirement savings: policy and business implications. Paper presented to the IUSSP International Seminar on Applications of Demography in Business, Sydney 8-9 October 2007.
  • Parr, N, Ferris, S. and Mahuteau, S. 2007. The impact of children on Australian women's and men' s superannuation. Proceedings of the HILDA Survey Research Conference 2007. University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
  • Parr, N. 2007. Which men remain childless: the effects of early lifecourse, family formation, working life and attitudinal variables. Paper presented to the 2007 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America 29-31 March in New York, USA.
  • Parr, N. 2006. Who stops at one: evidence from Australia. Paper presented to the Australian Population Association conference in Adelaide, South Australia 5-8 December 2006 and to the 2007 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America 29-31 March in New York, USA.
  • Parr, N.. (2005) Why Your Siblings Cost You Grades, Income and Savings, Especially If You're Female. Paper presented to the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America at Philadelphia, PA, USA, 31 March-2 April 2005.
  • Parr, N. (2004) Family Background, Schooling and Childlessness in Australia. Paper presented to the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America at Boston, USA, April 1-3, 2004.
  • Guo, F. and Parr, N.J. (2003). Occupational Concentration and Mobility of Asian Immigrants in Australia. Paper presented to the Population Association of America 2003 Annual Meeting at Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 1-3 2003.
  • Parr, N. (2003) "Family Background, Schooling and Childlessness in Australia: What HILDA Tells Us". Paper presented to the British Society of Population Studies at Bristol, UK, September 10-12 2003.
  • Parr, N. and Guo, F. (2003) The Representation of Migrants in Professional Occupations in Australia. Paper presented to the 2003 European Association of Population Studies at Warsaw, Poland 26-30 August 2003.
  • Parr, N. and Guo, F. (2003). Occupational Concentration and Mobility of Asian Immigrants in Australia. Paper presented to the British Society of Population Studies at Bristol, UK, September 10-12 2003.
  • Parr, N. (2001). Mass Media Promotion of Family Planning and the Use of Modern Contraception in Ghana. Paper presented to the XXIV General Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Salvador, Brazil 18-24 August 2001.
  • Lucas, D. and Parr, N.J. (2000). Diasporas and Branch Migration. Paper presented to the Tenth National Conference of the Australian Population Association, Melbourne, Victoria. 28th November-1 st December 2000.
  • Weerasinghe, D. and Parr, N.J. (1999). The Effects of Wealth on Marital Fertility in Sri Lanka. Paper presented to Asia, Sri Lanka and Diasporic Communities, the 7th Sri Lanka Studies Conference, Canberra 3rd-6th December 1999.
  • Parr, N., Taylor, R., Anura, P., Boyages, J., Beller, E., Brassil, A. and Stubbs, J. (1998). A Demographically-based Approach to Projecting the Demand For Mammographic Screening in New South Wales. Paper presented to the Ninth National Conference of the Australian Population Association at the University of Queensland, Brisbane 29th September- 2nd October 1998 and to the Annual Conference of the Southern Demographic Association in Annapolis, Maryland 29th-31st October 1998.
  • Boyages, J., Beller, E., Taylor, R., Parr, N.J., Anura, P., Apostolopoulos, P., Stubbs, J., and Brassil, A., (1997) Moving Targets - Projecting Mammographic Screening Targets in NSW. Paper presented to the Breast screen Australia at Five Years Conference at Breast screen Australia, Canberra 21st-23rd August 1997.
  • Parr, N.J. and Mok, M. (1996) New South Wales Students' Plans to Take a Year Off and Their Plans to Go Overseas: A Multilevel Analysis of a Bivariate Binary Response. Paper presented to the Essex '96 Fourth International Conference on Social Science Methodology at Essex University, 1st-4th July 1996.
  • Parr, N.J. (1995) Analysing Fertility in West Africa Using Multilevel Poisson Models. Paper Presented to the Multilevel Models Workshop at RSSS, ANU, Canberra.

Affiliations / activities

  • 2016 Program Convenor of 18th Biennial National Conference of Australian Population Association. To be held in Sydney, 29 November-2 December 2016.
  • 2015- Member of Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM)
  • 2015- Member of Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC)
  • President of Australian Population Association 2002-04
  • Conference Convener for the Eleventh National Conference of the Australian Population Association held in Sydney from 2-4 th October 2002 .
  • Vice President of Australian Population Association 2000-2002
  • President of the New South Wales Regional Group of the Australian Population Association 1997-2001
  • Member of National Council of Australian Population Association 1996-2006
  • Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC) 2004-2005
  • Member of Population Association of America (PAA) 2000-now
  • Member of (US ) Southern Demographic Association 1998-99
  • Member of International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) 1993-now
  • Member of Australian Population Association (APA) 1992-now

phd supervision toggle icon open PhD Student Supervision

  • 2016- Principal Supervisor to Sheruni De Alwis (Karunaratne) for PhD.
  • 2016- Principal Supervisor to Rabiul Haque PhD.
  • 2015 Principal Supervisor to Sheruni Karunaratne for MRes.
  • 2013- Principal supervisor to Crichton Smith for PhD in Demography
  • 2012- Associate Supervisor for Syazreen Niza Shair for PhD in Actuarial Studies.
  • 2012- Principal Supervisor for Jerico Pardosi for PhD in Demography.
  • 2010-2013 Principal Supervisor of Jackie Li for PhD in Demography.
  • 2010-2012 Associate Supervisor to Helene Mountford for PhD in Human Resource Management.
  • 2010-2011 Associate Supervisor to Dedur Mahmud for PhD in Marketing.
  • 2006-08 Principal Supervisor of Daminda Weerasinghe for PhD in Demography.
  • 2005 Associate Supervisor of Daminda Weerasinghe for PhD in Demography.
  • 1996-1998 Supervisor of Daminda Weerasinghe for Masters by Research in Demography.

Honours Supervision

  • 2010 Supervisor of Simon Massey for Honours in Demography (awarded first class).
  • 2007 Supervisor of Elizabeth Crombie for Honours in Demography.

Other Publications

Advice Given to Parliament

  • Parr, N. (2002). Submission to the General Standing Committee No 1 Inquiry into Inner City Schools. Unpublished

Other Public Output Within Area of Expertise

Media Mentions

  • Dr Nick Parr referenced in WA Today

  • Dr Nick Parr from the Department of Marketing and Management, and his paper Which Men Remain Childless?, were referenced in a WA Today piece which considers the potential impact of women using sperm donors to start their family without a significant other in their life. 

    Publication: WA Today
    Story: Mother of all questions: do we need men at all?
    Date: 12 December, 2013

    Read the full article

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Overview of Academic Employment

  • 2010 - now Associate Professor in Demography at Macquarie University
  • 2002-2009 Senior Lecturer in Demography at Macquarie University
  • 1992-2001 Lecturer in Demography at Macquarie University