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Pramanik, Md. Al-Amin

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  • Paper Title: Poverty and Gender Inequality in Bangladesh: A study among Ready-Made Garment (RMG) Workers. 
  • Department Affiliation: Economics 
  • Supervisors’ Names:
    • Doctor Pundarik Mukhopadhaya 


This study primarily aims to investigate the effect of various reform programmes in Bangladesh on female workers, especially RMG workers and on their well-being.  


This is the first study in Bangladesh using primary data to relate gender inequality and economic liberalization. The proposed model of multidimensional poverty/gender inequality is unique in nature. 

Key literature / theoretical perspective:

The social and economic dimension of the RMG sectors have been explored in several studies such as Paul-Majumder (1996, 2002, 2003), Paul-Majumder and Begum (1997, 2002), Kabeer and Mahmud (2004), Bhattacharya et al., (2002). They find that females are receiving wages below the legal minimum. Male are more often promoted ahead of females and earnings increase at much higher rate than women’s, even after controlling for age, education, and experience and skill level. Female is mainly concentrated in the low-skill, low wage and segment of production. Women working in RMG sectors feel that their status has improved and positively affected self-esteem and decision-making with benefits extended to other family members. Bhattarchaya (1999) finds wage discrimination against women in the export-oriented textile industry was lower than in any other manufacturing sector and has declined over time more than in other sectors. Hewett and Amin (2000; 2001) find that female garment workers have a higher age at marriage and at first birth than women of similar socioeconomic background and do not suffer from major health problem. Khosla (2009) finds that women have greater economic independence, respect, social standing and voice than before.  


This study used primary data from five industrial zones of Bangladesh. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and logistic regression analysis are used in this study. This study will also use Discriminant Analysis (DA) to compare between different regions and demographical characteristics. 


Employing the collected data presently I am finalizing the model to test hypotheses. 

Research limitations/implications:

This study is using only one country. 

Practical and Social implications:

This will help policy makers especially of developing countries to make pragmatic welfare policies for workers. 


Poverty, Gender Inequality, Bangladesh, Trade Liberalisation, SEM.