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Md. Al-Amin Pramanik

First Name: Al-Amin
Surname: Pramanik
Department Dept of Economics
Supervisor(s): Dr. Pundarik Mukhopadhaya , Professor Jeffrey Sheen

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Paper Title

Poverty and Ready-Made Garment (RMG) Workers in Bangladesh


This paper investigates the effect of how different monetary and non-monetary indicators on the poverty among RMG workers in Bangladesh and compares between Export Processing Zone (EPZ) and non-EPZ areas.


This paper used primary cross-sectional data collected through a structured questionnaire.

Key literature/theoretical perspective

It is opined in the literature that RMG industry has contributed and increased emphasis on women’s employment, income, consumption, and campaigns to improve their health, right, equality, and empowerment.


The methodology is based on 495 primary samples from five different industrial zones in Bangladesh. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) this study developed a new method for measuring poverty.


This paper finds various dimensions of poverty such as income, consumption, better working facilities, career prospect and housing condition. This study also finds that monthly salary is the most influential indicators of income while safe drinking water and daily meat intake have significant influence on consumption. Another dimension of poverty, better working facilities, is determined by the availability of medical facilities and maternity leave. Career Prospect is emerged as a new determining factor of poverty.

Research limitations/implications

Practical and Social implications: As a policy prescription the paper suggests that stakeholders including government and owners of the RMG industry should focus attention on making the industry a more and equal worker friendly and also sustainable platform for worker’s equal well-being.


Poverty, SEM, RMG and Bangladesh.