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Albert Nugraha

First Name: Albert
Surname: Nugraha
Department Dept of Marketing and Management
Supervisor(s): Prof. Gregory Elliott , Dr. Hamin

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Paper Title

Consumer Decision to Visit a Risky Tourist Destination: An Analysis of Tourists’ Risk Taking


The purpose of this study is to investigate consumers’ international tourism decisions, especially in relation to their decisions whether or not to visit a country for leisure and/or medical tourism. In particular, the study examines the differences in risk taking behaviour as tourists evaluate leisure and medical tourism options.


In the field of country of origin studies, there are limited studies investigating the concept of “willingness to take risk”. Such studies typically focus on the role of perceived risk with less discussion about willingness to take risk in purchasing consumer services. This research contributes by examining the relevance of willingness to take risk in consumers’ decisions to visit a country, in this case for purposes leisure and medical tourism. The study will also examine the role of “cultural distance” by comparing Australian consumers’ attitudes to visiting Indonesia and India for purposes of leisure and/or medical tourism.

Key literature/theoretical perspective

The key literature refers to country of origin theory and consumer behaviour especially in relation to risk taking behavior. Some relevant variables are consumer knowledge, trust, perceived risk, risk reduction strategies and cultural distance.


The research will apply quantitative approaches to test the proposed model. At this stage, quantitative tools such as structural equation modeling (SEM) and MANOVA are proposed to test the hypotheses.


Research in progress.

Practical and Social implications

The study can be used as a basis for developing strategies to influence the perception of risk and reduce the risk to consumers in visit countries such as Indonesia and India.


Country of origin effect, willingness to take risk, experience service, credence service, cultural distance.