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Jerico Pardosi

First Name: Jerico
Surname: Pardosi
Department Dept of Marketing and Management
Supervisor(s): Associate Professor Nick Parr , Dr. Salut Muhidin

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Paper Title

Health Inequity of Early Age Mortality in Ende District, Indonesia


Mortality in early age provides a primary measure of health in a population. Despite falls in early age mortality rates (ie, age less than 5 years) in Indonesia in recent decades, high mortality rates exist in poorer provinces in Eastern Indonesia such as Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT). The main challenge for NTT is to obtain valid and reliable early mortality data that can be used for developing appropriate health policy and monitoring. This research aims to provide more reliable and up-to-date measures of early age mortality to the local government in Ende and similar district in NTT. It plans to utilize data from an early age mortality survey conducted in 2010 in Ende, and match reported deaths to recent vital registration system. It also will use data from other similar district. Furthermore, qualitative research would identify more depth information or underlying opinions in the community on child survival program in NTT. The expected outcome of this research would be in the form of publish articles both international and national journals and plan of action for local governments to strengthen child survival program. This study also contributes knowledge and experience on measuring mortality in developing countries for international community.


This study aims to identify health inequities of early age mortality in Ende district.


This study is the first health inequity study of child mortality at district level for Indonesia.

Key literature/theoretical perspective

Most studies in health equity analyse the national level and focus only on horizontal analysis. This study will use the health equity definition proposed by the International Society for Equity in Health (ISEqh). This study will identify the social, economic, demographic and geographic factors related to early age mortality at district level. The challenge for any health equity studies in the literature is to analyse not only horizontal but also vertical analysis. The vertical analysis refers to fairness and social justice for deprived population.


This study will apply mixed methods. For the quantitative approach, this study will use both horizontal and vertical analysis. The 2007 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey, the 2010 Ende Child Mortality Survey and the 2010 National Socio-Economic Survey are the secondary data sources. The primary data of qualitative method will be obtained from in-depth-interview and focus group discussion in Ende.

Research limitations/implications

The foreseeable implication of this study is the sampling issue. This is mainly because the available secondary data sources have a small sample at the district level. However, this study will use the 2010 Ende Child Mortality Survey (ECMS). The 2010 ECMS has a total of 7,454 households with 7,324 births between 2000 and 2009 compared to 2007 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) with total sample of 125 households for Ende.

This study applies a social justice and social determinants of health theory by proposing a framework for investigating health inequity of infant, neonatal and under-five mortality at district level.

Practical and Social implications

The health equity analysis will provide specific child survival strategies for the sub-districts with high child mortality rates and policy to minimize inequities of early age mortality in Ende district.


Health Inequity, child mortality, equity, Ende, Indonesia